Can you fragment the IP Packet more than once?

Introduction I was sitting and doing my work and suddenly a question crossed my mind, “Can you fragment a IP packet more than once?” I don’t know what triggered it but it just came through. I thought and said to myself, Why not? All my fundamentals said, yes it should be able to do it … Read more

Classless behavior of Classful Routing protocol

Most of the books say that Classful routing protocol does not support classless subnets which is not 100% true, as they can send/receive some subnets even without its Mask. I am taking an example of RIPv1. This is a well-known fact that RIPv1 is a classful routing protocol hence MASK information does not travel with … Read more

Exploring Different Flavors of ARP: Address Resolution Protocol Variants and Extensions

There are a number of flavors of ARP. I don’t know why we came up with different names but fundamentally their working are not very different in different scenarios. Its only the Media and technology which changes and calls ARP with different names: ARP(Address Resolution Protocol): The protocol used to determine MAC address using Network … Read more

Exploring Ethernet MAC Addresses: Understanding the Foundation of Network Communication

As described in data link layer address, Ethernet uses MAC addresses for its layer 2 communication. Almost all the ports in a LAN have MAC addresses. And they all are unique. How they keep it unique? The fundamental is quite simple. MAC addresses are burnt in addresses and hence can’t be changed (In reality, I … Read more

Data Link Layer Addressing: Understanding MAC Addresses

Eventually IP became the most accepted protocol for layer 3 communication, but IP can transfer packet only up to one network but within one network we need an address on which packets can be transferred. As data link layer is responsible for communication in local boundaries so it becomes data link layer protocols'(Ethernet, 802.3, 802.5, … Read more