The Secrets of Tracing a Route with Traceroute

Introduction In today’s digitally interconnected world, understanding how data travels across the internet is vital. This article delves into the fascinating realm of tracing a route, specifically focusing on the intriguing tool known as Traceroute. Whether you’re a curious internet user or a network administrator, knowing how to decipher the path data takes from your … Read more

Point to point connection with mismatched mask

It is a general practice to assign a /30 IP address to point to point connections. But what will happen if we don’t have same subnet mask at both the ends. As demonstrated in diagram, 2 routers are connected via point to point connection. from router R1 and here are the results: R1#ping … Read more

Can you fragment the IP Packet more than once?

Introduction I was sitting and doing my work and suddenly a question crossed my mind, “Can you fragment a IP packet more than once?” I don’t know what triggered it but it just came through. I thought and said to myself, Why not? All my fundamentals said, yes it should be able to do it … Read more

IPv4 Packet or IP Packet Format: Understanding the Anatomy of IPv4 Data Transmission

It is very important to understand the structure of an IP packet especially if you are indulged in a lot of IP network troubleshooting. Today most of the networks has been built on IP and IPv4 is the most common IP addressing scheme used. IP addressing can be quite difficult with subnetting and supernetting coming … Read more

Exploring Different Flavors of ARP: Address Resolution Protocol Variants and Extensions

There are a number of flavors of ARP. I don’t know why we came up with different names but fundamentally their working are not very different in different scenarios. Its only the Media and technology which changes and calls ARP with different names: ARP(Address Resolution Protocol): The protocol used to determine MAC address using Network … Read more

Address Resolution Protocol(ARP): A Way to Know Each Other

If we see computer networks from a high level, it is clear that IP(in IP world) is responsible for carrying traffic from one network to another network. This is a separate topic of study, is called Routing in Cisco’s world. Routing defines how the traffic will flow in the network? what path will be taken? How the … Read more

Exploring Ethernet MAC Addresses: Understanding the Foundation of Network Communication

As described in data link layer address, Ethernet uses MAC addresses for its layer 2 communication. Almost all the ports in a LAN have MAC addresses. And they all are unique. How they keep it unique? The fundamental is quite simple. MAC addresses are burnt in addresses and hence can’t be changed (In reality, I … Read more

OSI Layer 2: Data Link Layer, A Comprehensive Guide

Layer 2 of OSI model is called Data link layer. It performs a set of actions to exchange information from one computer to other. The data link layer works on the local network. Internetwork services are provided by higher layers like IP on layer3. The main functions of data link layer are as follows: A … Read more

Data Link Layer Addressing: Understanding MAC Addresses

Eventually IP became the most accepted protocol for layer 3 communication, but IP can transfer packet only up to one network but within one network we need an address on which packets can be transferred. As data link layer is responsible for communication in local boundaries so it becomes data link layer protocols'(Ethernet, 802.3, 802.5, … Read more

OSI Layers: An Introduction to the Open Systems Interconnection Model and 7 layers

For understanding of networks and before jumping into Cisco stuff, it’s very necessary to understand OSI layer architecture. ISO standardized the network sharing process into 7 different layers and that complete model is called OSI layer model. OSI stands for Open System Interconnection and was standardized by ISO(International Organization for Standardization). OSI has a seven layer architecture and … Read more